Angiogenic Growth Factor In Ischemic Heart Disease

Angiogenic growth has a vital role in Ischemic heart diseases and Angiogenesis is a physiological process which involves the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. Even though there has been some debate over this it has been seen that vasculo-genesis is the term used for spontaneous blood-vessel formation. The term intussusceptions are used for new blood vessel formation by splitting off existing ones. Hence, Angiogenesis is a normal process in growth and development and has also been considered in wound healing.

But it should be remembered that this process is also a fundamental step in the transition of tumors from a dormant state to a malignant state. Basically the sprouting angiogenesis had been first identified as a form of angiogenesis and could occur in several well-characterized stages. One of the first stages here were the biological signals known as angiogenic growth factors, which have activate receptors present on endothelial cells. These are present in pre-existing veins too.

The second aspect here is the activated endothelial cells, which begin to release enzymes called proteases. These proteases are known for degrading the basement membrane so that it allows endothelial cells to escape from the original or the parent vessel walls. These endothelial cells then produce offspring's into the surrounding matrix and lead to formation of solid sprouts connecting neighboring vessels. When these sprouts start to extend toward the source of the angiogenic stimulus then these endothelial cells migrate in tandem.

These cells are using adhesion molecules, which are equivalent of cellular grappling hooks named integrins for these purposes. The sprouts then form loops so that they emerged as a full-fledged vessel lumen and these cells then migrate to the site of angiogenesis. It should be remembered that sprouting occurs at a rate of several millimeters per day, which also enables new vessels to breed across gaps in the vasculature. But this process is very different from splitting angiogenesis because it forms entirely new vessels, in opposition to splitting existing vessels.

The intussusceptive angiogenesis is also known as splitting angiogenesis and had been first observed in neonatal rats. In these vessel formations the capillary wall usually extends into the lumen so that it can split a single vessel in two. Basically there are four phases of intussusceptive angiogenesis and first is where the two opposing capillary walls establish a zone of contact. In the second phase the endothelial cell junctions reorganize and the vessel bi-layer is perforated for allowing growth factors and cells to penetrate into the lumen.

During the third stage a core is formed between the two new vessels and cells begin laying collagen fibers into the core for providing them with an extra cellular matrix for growth of the vessel lumen. In the last stage the core is fleshed out with no alterations to the fundamental structure. This process is important since it leads to reorganization of existing cells and permits an increase in the number of capillaries without a corresponding rise in the number of endothelial cells. Thus the impact of the Angiogenic growth has a vital role in Ischemic heart diseases is vital.