Benign Essential Hypertension

Hypertension is a cause of severe illness, mortality and a cost to society. There is fair evidence that the hypertension disorder is inheritable, although the precise genetic pattern is not known. Many studies on this disorder have also confirmed a positive correlation between body weight and high blood pressure. Patients who lose body weight can reduce their blood pressure. The pathophysiological mechanisms under analysis currently involve Salt sensitivity, Rennin-angiotensin-aldosteron system and Sympathetic nervous system.

There is no certain agreement on the definition of hypertension, but most authorities accept that an "at rest" sustained blood pressure of more than 140/90 mmHg is a borderline hypertension. Also the diastolic blood pressure between, 95 and 104 mmHg is categorized mild, 105 and 114 mmHg is categorized moderate and 115 mmHg and above severe. Majority of the people who have high blood pressure have no obvious cause for their condition. The key feature, however, in all patients is an increased total peripheral vascular resistance. Hypertension has also been classified by the researchers according to the clinical and pathological consequences of the blood pressure elevation. Essential or benign hypertension is often without symptoms. Malignant hypertension needs immediate treatment as it is a serious condition and can cause organ damage or risk of sudden death cerebral hemorrhage if left untreated.

Benign hypertension in advanced cases produces hypertrophy of the left ventricle due to increased cardiac overload and peripheral vascular resistance. Longstanding type of hypertension creates disorders of small arteries and the development of atherosclerosis. There are a number of other diseases that precipitated or accelerated by hypertension such as aortic aneurysm and cerebral hemorrhage. Hypertension can commonly be classified into two major categories like primary or essential hypertension and secondary hypertension. While the causes of the essential hypertension are well known, there are no known causes of the former. On the basis of the severity of the disorder and its possible consequences on the other parts of the body, hypertension may be classified as either malignant or benign.

Malignant type of hypertension can be marked by quickly rising blood pressure which is often accompanied with associated diseased conditions such as renal or heart failure. Benign hypertension is used to describe a diseased condition of mild to moderate high blood pressure. Benign essential hypertension now can be defined, as a high blood pressure condition of mild to moderate hypertension, for which there is no discernible cause. This condition represents a state of constant yet controlled high blood pressure, without any associated risks of renal or heart failure or organ damage. As this diseased condition is not malevolent in terms of its consequences, it is often described as benign.

Over the years, as more research was done on the subject, it was observed that not all forms of high blood pressure are benign. The medical professional came to know that this diseased condition could also be dangerous. However, according to the recent studies doctors do not label benign essential hypertension as a dangerous and risky condition. It is now clear that untreated and ignored benign hypertension can often deteriorate into a malignant and dangerous condition.