Glossary Of Developmental Disabilities

The types of developmental disabilities are congenital disorders related to a problem with how a body part or body system works. These types of disorders may also be known as functional birth defects. Most of these disabled conditions affect multiple body parts or systems. There are a number of developmental disabilities have been reported so far.

Nervous system disabilities are the disorders which are birth defects that affect the functioning of the spinal cord, brain, and nervous system, which can impact intelligence and learning. These disabled conditions can also cause problems such as speech or language difficulties, behavioral disorders, convulsions, and movement disorders. Some of the most common disabilities of the nervous system include Mental retardation. The term mental retardation actually describes a definite range of scores on an intelligence quotient or IQ test.

Mental retardation can result from a number of different physiological conditions, including Down syndrome which is a set of mental and physical characteristics related to having an extra copy of Chromosome 21; Fragile X Syndrome which is the most common inherited form of mental retardation caused by a defect in a specific part of the Fragile X Mental Retardation-1 gene that causes the body to produce low amounts or none of a certain protein; Autism Spectrum Disorder which is a range of problems that can affect a person's social skills, communication skills, and intelligence. As the autism is clinically diagnosed on a spectrum, people with this condition can have mild symptoms or severe symptoms but they all have a type of autism; Some Sensory organ related disabilities which are often a key part of complex birth defect patterns. Those people who have Fragile X Syndrome are often very sensitive to loud noises; they may overreact or have outbursts in reaction to such sounds.

Metabolic Disorder is a group of functional birth defects which badly affects a person's metabolism, which is the way the body builds up, breaks down, and otherwise processes the materials it needs to function. Such as the process how the body breaks down sugar to create energy is a metabolic process. Two most commonly known metabolic disorders include Phenylketonuria or PKU which is a condition in which a problem with a specific enzyme, a protein that speeds up certain chemical reactions, causes mental retardation. Hypothyroidism is hormonal disordered condition which if left untreated in an infant, can cause mental retardation.

Degenerative Disorders are the congenital problems of the infant. Some child born with the degenerative disorders appear normal at birth, but then lose abilities or functions due to the in condition. In these disabled cases, the defect is usually not detected until an older age, when the child or person starts to show signs of loss of function. Some types of degenerative disorders are the result of metabolic disorders.Degenerative disorders can cause mental, physical and sensory problems, depending on the specific defect.

There are many developmental disabilities which have no effective cure, but there are often ways to treat the symptoms. Such as infants with Down syndrome can often benefit from occupational therapy, speech therapy, and exercises for gross and fine motor skills. These children might also be helped by special education and attention at school. Surgery can also help to improve the congenital heart defects.